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Web Design

Web design is the process of creating websites . It encompasses several different aspects, including webpage layout, content production, and graphic design. While the terms web design and web development are often used interchangeably, web design is technically a subset of the broader category of web development.
Websites are created using a markup language called HTML . Web designers build webpages using HTML tags that define the content and
metadata of each page. The layout and appearance of the elements within a webpage are typically defined using CSS , or cascading style sheets. Therefore, most websites include a combination of HTML and CSS that defines how each page will appear in a browser. Some web designers prefer to hand code pages (typing HTML and CSS from scratch), while others use a " WYSIWYG " editor like Adobe Dreamweaver
This type of editor provides a visual interface for designing the webpage layout and the software automatically generates the corresponding HTML and CSS code.
 Another popular way to design websites is with a content management system like WordPress or Joomla. These services provide different website
templates that can be used as a starting point for a new website. Webmasters can then add content and customize the layout using a web-based interface.
While HTML and CSS are used to design the look and feel of a website, images must be created separately. Therefore, graphic design may overlap with web design, since graphic designers often create images for use on the Web. Some graphics programs like Adobe Photoshop even include a " Save for Web… " option that provides an easy way to export images in a format optimized for web publishing.


A portfolio is a set of pictures by someone, or photographs of examples of their work, which they use when entering competitions or applying for work. 

The Importance of a Portfolio  A portfolio is a living and changing collection of records thatreflect your accomplish ments, skills, experiences, and attributes. It highlights and showcases samples of some of your best work, along with life experiences, values and achievements. The personal information that you incorporate into your portfolio can greatly reflect on your abilities as an individual as well as become a useful tool in marketing yourself to employers, corporations, colleges and universities. A portfolio does not take the place of a resume, but it can accentuate your abilities and what you can offer in the chosen field.

Why do I need a portfolio? A portfolio can set you apart from other applicants, whether in a professional or academic setting. 

• It allows you to be more personal and creative in order to expand on and exhibit your skills, knowledge, projects and experiences. 

• A portfolio is a method of selfdiscovery and confidencebuilding. • It is a multi-faceted way to organize your accomplishments, goals, aspirations, and personal thought. It showcases your personality to potential employers and organizations. 

• It is a useful tool to include in an interview. It provides tangible proof of your skills and abilities and demonstrates to the employer that you are qualified for that specific job. 

• It can be helpful in applying for bonuses, scholarships, grants and negotiating promotions and raises. 

• A portfolio demonstrates prior work or learning experiences that can be useful for educational credit.

How do I create a portfolio? 

First, you need to determine what type of portfolio is best suited for your needs: 

  1. Student Portfolio —Useful in an academic setting; demonstrates knowledge attained in a given class or throughout your school career. This portfolio can be very helpful if you plan on continuing your education beyond the undergraduate level. 
  2.  Project Portfolio —Useful in an academic and professional setting; shows the efforts or steps taken to complete a specific project or independent study. For example, if you have the experience of producing a school play, you would create a portfolio that incorporated the materials and research that was involved. If you wanted to apply for a grant in order to do another play then you could use your portfolio as a form of proof that you did a good job and would be a prime candidate to receive the requested grant. 
  3. Professional Portfolio —Useful in a professional setting; demonstrates your skills, background, accomplishments and experiences. This portfolio is versatile and can be arranged for a specific position. For example, a teaching portfolio would be a type of professional portfolio that would highlight experiences, achievements, goals and ambitions for a position as a teacher within an educational institution. 
  4. Online Portfolio—Useful in an academic and professional setting; enables your credentials to be more easily accessible via the internet. This should not take the place of a hard copy portfolio, but be created in addition to one. This portfolio can be very helpful for those planning on applying for a job in the field of technology and/or graphic design. Also, an online portfolio can be useful to anyone in any given field. As the Information Age progresses, prospective employers are beginning to request online portfolios. Bear in mind that several employers may be located afar and with one click of a mouse, they can access your information more readily. 
  5. Personal Portfolio—Simply for your personal use. This portfolio is a collection or a scrapbook of things that interest you. This portfolio could be used as a stepping block towards understanding who you are and where you would like to be in the future.


Definition: A recognizable graphic design element, often including a name, symbol or trademark, representing an organization or product .
Before you start thinking about designing a business card or picking colors for your letterhead, you need a logo. Featuring your company name, embellished with a little color and perhaps a few graphic touches here and there, your logo is your company's most important design element because it's the basis for all your other marketing materials: stationery, packaging, promotional materials and signage.
For example, say your product is an organic facial cream you'll be marketing to health-conscious consumers. Your logo should represent your product's best benefits--being all natural and environmentally sound. Creating a simple, no-nonsense logo using earth tones and a plain typeface will give the impression of a product that's "back to basics," which is exactly what you want to achieve. Take that same product and give it a slick, high-tech look with neon colors, however, and people won't associate your logo with the down-to-earth product you're selling.

Logos come in two basic forms: abstract symbols (like the apple in Apple Computer) or logotypes, a stylized rendition of your company's name. You can also use a combination of both.
Trying to create a logo on your own may seem like the best way to avoid the high costs of going to a professional design firm, which will charge anywhere from $4,000 to $15,000 for a logo alone. However, be aware that there are thousands of independent designers around who charge much less. Remember that a good logo should last at least 10 years. If you look at the amortization of that cost over a 10-year period, it doesn't seem so bad.
Even if you have a good eye for color and a sense of what you want your logo to look like, you should still consult a professional designer. Why? They know whether or not a logo design will transfer easily into print or onto a sign, while you might come up with a beautiful design that can't be transferred or would cost too much to be printed. Your logo is the foundation for all your promotional materials, so this is one area where spending a little more now really pays off later.

Online Store & Marketing

Shopping Cart and eCommerce
Advertising design refers to the creation and organization of visual artwork used in advertisements (ads) for products and services.
The designs used in advertising are created by graphic designers, and advertising agencies as well as the advertising departments of corporations employ these professionals to create and execute brochures, direct mail , web ads, and print ads. The design elements used include fancy lettering, borders, cartoons, illustrations, and photographs. The main difference between ad design and regular mainstream artwork is that advertising art must be designed to reach and compel the target audience to purchase products and services.
People who design advertising are not only talented in the art of creative design, they understand marketing and how to promote products and services through visual communication. Whereas a freelance fine artist may work on one creative piece of artwork for months, a graphic artist must constantly keep generating original pieces to meet campaign deadlines. Examples are all around, and include the banner ads on websites as well as newspaper ads for products such as shoes and watches

A shopping cart is a software used in eCommerce to assist visitors to make purchases online. Upon checkout, the software calculates the total of the order, including shipping and handling, taxes and other parameters the owner of the site has previously set. The shopping cart typically provides a means of collecting the shopper's payment information. Some shopping carts strictly allow for an item to be added to the basket to start a checkout process (such as the PayPal shopping cart), other shopping carts actually provides additional features that the merchant can fully manage the online store. 

Shopping cart softwares consists of two main components:

Storefront The area of the website that is accessed by the visitor.

 Administration The area of the website that is accessed by the merchant to manage the online shop. 

Graphic Design

Graphic design, also known as communication design, is the art and practice of planning and projecting ideas and experiences with visual and textual content. The form it takes can be physical or virtual and can include images, words, or graphics

The experience can take place in an instant or over a long period of time. The work can happen at any scale, from the design of a single postage stamp to a national postal signage system. It can be intended for a small number of people, such as a one-off or limited-edition book or exhibition design, or can be seen by millions, as with the interlinked digital and physical content of an international news organization. It can also be for any purpose, whether commercial, educational, cultural, or political.

Design that’s to be experienced in an instant is the easiest to recognize. Designers arrange type, form, and image on posters, advertisements, packages , and other printed matter, as well as
information visualizations and graphics for newspapers and magazines.
This kind of design is often confused with illustration, but while an illustrator creates or draws an image in response to an idea, a designer combines illustrations, photographs, and type in order to communicate an idea. One way to understand this is to consider the difference between a furniture maker and an interior designer. One makes a specific object for a specific purpose, while the other thinks about how all of the objects and surfaces of a room create an environment for the person moving through it. Good illustrators are often capable designers and vice versa, making it harder to distinguish between the two practices.
Motion graphics are equally predetermined and crafted but are meant to be experienced over a fixed time span, like the opening credits of a movie or an online video that explains part of a newspaper article. They usually go beyond the visual, curating and cueing sound to moving vector graphics, photographs, and video. The difference between motion graphics and videography or animation is the same as the difference between two-dimensional graphics and illustration. Motion graphics combine animation , videography, and typography for a communicative purpose, and this combination over time and the space of the screen constitutes the design.
Whether physical or digital, books and
magazines are meant to be enjoyed over time, during which the reader has control over the pace and sequence of the experience. In books, the content usually comes before the design, while in magazines, the design is a structure that anticipates written and visual content that hasn’t yet been created. Some commercial websites or exhibition catalogues also fit in this category, as do digital or physical museum displays that show information that doesn’t change. All have content in a suggested order that has been thought about ahead of time, but the user or reader finds his or her own path through the material.
Many designers also produce systems that are meant to be experienced over time but aren’t confined to the making of objects. Wayfinding , a form of
environmental graphics , refers to branding and signage applied throughout and on buildings or outdoor areas like parks or highways. While each sign or symbol in wayfinding is a work of design, together they form a larger system that helps people navigate while maintaining a sense of the character of where they are. The design of the system—the relationships among all of those parts—is where the designer brings greatest value.
The larger category of environmental graphics includes any design that connects a person to a place, extending to and overlapping with dynamic displays , didactic type and imagery, and
creative placemaking . A wall of terminals that show arriving and departing flights, a digital display on the facade of a building that shows stock prices, an inspirational quote in a building lobby, and a placard explaining a historical place or landmark are all examples of environmental graphics.
Similar to wayfinding, branding pulls together all of the artifacts of a commercial or institutional brand, like a business card, a sign, a logo, or an
advertisement, into a visual system. How those are experienced over time is the design work. No part is created without considering the other parts or without thinking about how the target customer will first encounter the brand and then develop a relationship with that brand over time.

In the twentieth century, a consumer often had just a few touchpoints for a brand. For example, if you were to fly somewhere, you would see expressions of the airline on your ticket, at the gate, on the plane, on the uniforms of the flight attendants, and on various printed items on the plane, like the blankets, napkins, or in-flight magazines. Perhaps you would have seen a print or television ad. 

Today, your experience still includes all of these items, but now it begins well before you arrive at the airport, when you buy your ticket on the airline’s website and receive an email confirmation, and carries through to a safety video and interactive options on board. Once you’ve arrived at your destination, you may also receive follow-ups by email asking about your experience on the trip or inviting you to further interact with the brand. This expansion of touchpoints overlaps with almost every medium and considers a much longer span of engagement with the customer.*

Designers are also responsible for interactive designs where the content changes as it gets updated, as well as screen interfaces that help people navigate through a lot of information. Interaction design differentiates itself from other kinds of design by adding another consideration: responding to the actions of the viewer or user. Editorial design for web and mobile is the most tangible example, including websites and mobile apps for publication. Some digital design involves the presentation of rapidly changing streaming information, also known as data visualization, creating both interactive and non-interactive interfaces. Product design refers to the design of digital products, which are digital services, tools, or platforms that can be brought to market. The term is confusing because for several decades “product design” has referred only to industrially produced physical items like radios, benches, and bicycles and has been used interchangeably with “industrial design.” Related to software design , product design requires knowledge both about how computers process, sort, and display information as well as how humans interface with computers. Many companies and the designers who work for them aim for their products to be used by large numbers of people around the world, so they often rely on widely accepted design patterns and metaphors and prioritize usability and functionality over aesthetic expression. For large or complex projects, different designers may work on the user interface (UI) , which refers to the affect and layout of what the user sees in the moment, and the user experience (UX) , or the total experience of users over time as they move through websites or mobile apps.

Depending on the scale of the context in which a designer works, the work may include one, some, or all of these things in the course of a year. Larger companies, agencies, teams, or studios may employ a number of specialists, while smaller studios and groups may need to have each individual capable, if not an expert, in multiple areas. Higher-level creative direction or managerial positions usually require expertise in at least two additional areas beyond basic competence in design: domain expertise (knowing what is happening in a particular business sector) and further knowledge and experience in team management or client relations. While having a job in design requires knowledge in only one area, having a career in design requires expertise in more than one medium and more than one area of the design process.
*This explanation about the difference between twentieth and twenty-first century design was given by Khoi Vinh during a lecture about his Mixel app in 2013 at Parsons.